Researchers from the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University and the Federal University of Porto Alegre in Brazil found that when health workers were trained to promote healthy infant feeding methods to pregnant women, their children’s fat and There are fewer carbohydrates and a lower body fat content at 6 years of age. The study showed for the first time that the root cause of obesity began in the first year after the mother stopped breastfeeding.
The results of the study were published online in the Journal of Human Nutrition and Nutrition.
"The first year after birth is a critical window for the development of habits that will affect a person's lifelong health model," said Caroline N. Sangalli of the Health Sciences Graduate Program of the Federal University of Porto Alegre, Brazil, and lead author . "The message from the world is that in order to avoid obesity in later life, you cannot start to help mothers better feed their children too early. And this study proves that it is possible to change mothers' behavior."
The most surprising thing is that the mother in our randomized trial provided ultra-processed foods high in sugar and fat as early as 6 months of age. This behavior can be explained by cultural influence and the continued strong marketing of processed baby food on a global scale. "
Márcia Vitolo, Pediatrics Postgraduate Project: Child and Adolescent Health, Federal University of Porto Alegre, Brazil, co-senior author
Researchers conducted randomized trials in 31 centers in Porto Alegre, Brazil, which provide antenatal, infant, and other primary health care services to low-income families. The intervention is based on births between May 2008 and February 2009 and includes a training program to increase the knowledge of primary health care workers, with a focus on “ten steps for healthy feeding of children born to two years old in Brazil” , The Brazilian Dietary Guidelines.
All families learned about the complementary foods (ie biscuits, snacks, soft drinks, and sweets) that should not be provided to children under 2 through the poster in the waiting room. Trained interviewers measured the growth and other results of 6-month, 12-month, 3 and 6-year-old children in subsequent home visits. It also records detailed information about food types, quantities, and preparation methods.
Compared with the control group, the intervention group had lower energy intake for all ages, with statistically significant differences at 3 years old. In addition, children in the intervention group had lower carbohydrate and total fat consumption at 3 years of age than in the control group, and accumulated less body fat at 6 years of age, which was achieved by a smaller waist circumference and thinner skin folds. Measurable. "We found that the energy intake of the two study groups was higher than the needs of all age waves; however, the excess energy intake of the intervention group was less," observed Sangalli, who worked with Dr. LH Lumey of the Columbia Post Analyzed the research results of the Public Health Institute funded by the Brazilian government. "Although the gap was small at the beginning, in the long run,
The results of studies on the calories contained in biscuits and chocolate powder are particularly compelling, which are important sources of carbohydrates and fats. During the training of health workers, sugar, candies, soft drinks, savoury snacks, biscuits and ultra-processed foods were emphasized as foods that mothers should avoid giving their babies before the age of 2 years.
The intervention group at the age of 6 had lower body fat on many indicators, but this difference was not reflected in the BMI score, which is a less sensitive indicator of obesity. "However, the prevalence of overweight in the intervention group was 7% lower than that in the control group at age 6, which does indicate a valuable impact on public health—especially because estimates indicate that the prevalence of obesity in 1% of children is reduced 1% will save $1.7 billion in medical costs in 6 years," Vitolo said.
"Many people including Alice Waters, Jamie Oliver and Michelle Obama are committed to improving school lunch and eating habits for school-age children to help fight obesity," said Dr. Lumey, professor of epidemiology and co-senior author. "All of this Efforts are worthy of praise and encouragement. This study shows that we may need to think earlier. Feeding practices early in life can already have a significant impact on the body shape of preschool children."